The Significance of FIP: An Evaluation

Dave Stieb pitching off the mound; CC by 2.0 License

One of the widespread knocks on sabermetrics is how sure stats are flawed. I’m not going to speak about how FIP is an ideal stat and is the end-all, be-all in the case of superior stats. FIP is a really flawed stat with holes. Nonetheless, it’s also a extremely essential metric on the planet of baseball immediately and must be understood for all ranges of baseball gamers. So, initially, what’s FIP?

FIP is a stat that’s based mostly on the work of Voros McCracken on defense-independent pitching statistics. Tom Tango and Clay Dreslough made the stat itself they usually first known as it “Protection-Unbiased Part ERA.” The stat has gained some recognition as of late as a result of ease with which it’s calculated. Not like another superior stats equivalent to SIERA and wOBA, FIP is far simpler to calculate because it requires easy-to-remember constants paired with fundamental math.

13xHR+3x(BB+HBP) – 2xK

FIP= —————————– + FIP fixed


The FIP fixed is used to carry FIP onto the identical scale as ERA. There’s a system for the FIP fixed; nevertheless, if wanting on the MLB, it’s roughly 3.1-3.2. All of it relies on the run atmosphere of the league by which you might be enjoying. In case you are teaching/enjoying in highschool and the typical ERA is over 5, then the FIP fixed would regulate to round a 3.4-3.5 vary. All of it relies on the league common ERA of whichever league one is in. The FIP fixed equation is listed beneath:

lg=League (13xlgHR)+(3x(lgBB+lgHBP))-(2xlgK)

FIP fixed= lgERA minus ————————————-

League IP

Now, what does FIP imply? FIP stands for Fielding Unbiased Pitching. It takes a pitcher’s numbers and utterly neutralizes any ball that’s put in play. It solely seems on the outcomes {that a} pitcher has 100% management of, these being Strikeouts, Walks/HBP, and Homeruns. It’s typically used to point out the “luck” of a pitcher as a result of if a pitcher has low FIP, which means they’re putting out batters and never giving up walks or dwelling runs. Nonetheless, if that very same pitcher has a excessive ERA, he are seen as unfortunate as a result of his FIP is low.

How one can Use FIP

FIP is a stat for use with different stats. One can not simply have a look at it to find out a participant’s worth. FIP tells a narrative of how good a pitcher is in comparison with his ERA, as displayed beneath.

If we glance simply on the ERA of those guys, then Kluber was terrible, whereas Greene was mediocre and Quantrill very stable. Nonetheless, wanting on the FIP would make somebody assume they’re all related pitchers. Neither of those statements are incorrect as a result of it is very important have a look at BOTH ERA and FIP. Right here is how one would consider these pitchers by simply the numbers above.

Hunter Greene

Greene underperformed his FIP barely, as his 4.21 ERA is increased than his FIP. This means that he probably was excellent at 1 of three elements of FIP whereas not being nearly as good on the different 2. This could depict worth in retaining Greene round, and if he can pitch his solution to a extra well-rounded FIP, he has a excessive ceiling.

Cal Quantrill

Quantrill is within the reverse spot as Greene. His ERA was decrease than his FIP, which means he overperformed his FIP. this makes me assume that he allowed plenty of balls in play with weak contact. His Ok/9 was probably beneath common and HR/9 and BB/9 above common, which might result in extra balls in play. I don’t count on a lot development from Quantrill, however regression is not probably both. He’s be a protected guess for any rotation this 12 months.

Corey Kluber

Kluber’s season is a really attention-grabbing case examine, as his ERA was increased than one would count on by his FIP. these numbers makes me assume that Kluber was hit very laborious whereas additionally retaining his walks low and Ok/9 excessive. This could give me some hope for Kluber going into subsequent 12 months, particularly if he can begin to keep away from hard-hit balls. Nonetheless, I’d be very cautious with him. If his BB/9 will get even a bit of worse, he may utterly implode.

It’s extremely essential to know easy methods to use FIP and when to make use of it. It’s a very useful stat that may present quite a bit from a pitcher. As talked about above, a lot could be evaluated by simply wanting on the FIP and ERA of a pitcher. Nonetheless, some severe points with FIP itself nonetheless must be understood.

The Unhealthy Aspect of FIP

I can not speak about FIP with out speaking concerning the clear flaws within the stat itself. FIP avoids all batted balls, which is an effective factor within the sense that it may well simplify a pitcher into the three true outcomes. Nonetheless, it may well are inclined to oversimplify a pitcher in the best way it did with Kluber. Looking at Kluber’s baseball savant web page, he was not good this 12 months. However he was excellent at limiting walks, which made his FIP appear quite a bit higher than he was. This tends to occur when a pitcher has one ELITE element of FIP however is common or poor within the different elements. It will probably simply result in a FIP that’s decrease than the pitcher’s efficiency would point out. In conclusion, take FIP with a grain of salt and use the opposite stats round to assist consider the participant.

One other huge situation with FIP is that it tends to favor energy pitchers. These are guys with absurdly excessive Ok/9 and generally good BB/9 or HR/9. Take a look at Hunter Greene, for instance. He’s an influence pitcher within the making, with a excessive 90s fastball and plenty of strikeouts to his title. This led to his decrease FIP than anticipated. On the flip slide of this, FIP may harm contact-based pitchers that don’t depend on strikeouts. An instance of this comes from the nice Greg Maddux in comparison with Nolan Ryan.

Nolan Ryan and Greg Maddux throughout 4-year peak

As most know, Maddux was identified for being a really contact-based pitcher who depends, which results in a low Ok/9 price. Ryan was very a lot an influence pitcher who favored to depend on strikeouts. Trying on the stats above, it’s clear that Maddux had a 4-year peak that Nolan Ryan couldn’t contact. Nonetheless, regardless of their ERA being over a one-run distinction, their FIP is in the identical ballpark. One would assume that Maddux ought to have a much better FIP based mostly on his dominance in different stats, but Maddux being a contact pitcher comes again to harm him when it comes to FIP. Greg Maddux’s Ok/9 was solely 7.0, in comparison with Nolan Ryan’s Ok/9 of virtually 10. It is a prime instance of FIP favoring energy pitchers far more than contact pitchers.

One other important situation with FIP is that it utterly reductions balls in play, implying that pitchers can not management them. An instance of how silly this may be is discovered by evaluating Oneil Cruz and Tony Kemp. Within the 2022 season, Oneil Cruz hit a 122.4 MPH exit velo single. This was the hardest-hit ball within the 2022 season, but it didn’t harm the pitcher as a result of it was only a single. On the flip aspect, Tony Kemp hit a house run with an exit velo of simply 95 MPH. Solely one in all these two pitches went again to harm the pitcher’s FIP, and it was not the HARDEST hit ball of the 2022 season. As a substitute, it was simply the 95 mph HR.

The Significance of FIP

With all that being stated, FIP continues to be an important stat. It may be a simple stat for all gamers and coaches to guage efficiency. FIP will help present how useful a pitcher is at an important components of pitching. As stated above, it ought to by no means be utilized by itself when evaluating stats. One solution to regulate FIP for youthful ranges of sports activities is to regulate the HR stat. In decrease ranges of baseball, HRs should not widespread and wouldn’t have as huge of an impression as they do within the majors. As a substitute of utilizing HRs, one may use XBH to gauge the impression of getting hit laborious. FIP may also be essential when teaching gamers. It may be simple to see if a pitcher has been as unhealthy as he appears, and it may be used to see how a participant can get higher. For instance, if a child had a 5.43 ERA however a 4.23 FIP, then there may be some hope for that child, as he’s doing higher than his ERA reveals. FIP can be gaining much more significance immediately with the rise in “3 true outcomes,” that are walks, HRs, and strikeouts. With the rise of “3 true outcomes” gamers, the principle elements of FIP are extra prevalent, making FIP much more helpful.

To point out the significance of FIP and the way it may be used, look again on the 1982 AL CY Younger race earlier than FIP was an essential stat.

these numbers, it’s clear to me that Dave Stieb ought to have gained the Cy Younger, however the voters within the Eighties seemed principally at ERA and W-L document, in order that they gave the award to Vuckoich. One would possibly assume that this doesn’t matter, however Stieb was a man who received robbed of 1-2 Cy Younger awards, which is an enormous motive why he isn’t within the HOF. If FIP was a stat again then, it may be fairly assumed that Steib may have had a significantly better probability to win a Cy Younger award or two, which may have landed him within the HOF.

The significance of FIP can’t be understated. It helps to supply a unique lens to take a look at pitchers, which might change the entire perspective surrounding them. It’s in no way an ideal stat, but it surely helps present the entire image when evaluating gamers.


FIP is a vital however misunderstood and misused stat. FIP must be used throughout all ranges of sports activities. Nonetheless, it must be used within the right method and used with different stats to point out its worth. On no account is FIP an ideal stat. Nonetheless, with the simplicity of the stat and the worth it may well present alongside ERA, it’s fairly useful. I encourage you, in the event you’re a fan, coach, participant, or another concerned with baseball, to study FIP as it may well assist quite a bit with all features of baseball.


– FanGraphs

– Baseball reference